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criminal law essay outline - White Americans are the largest racial group of Americans who identify as and are perceived to be white hostingrispru.gearhostpreview.com Americans (including White Hispanics) constitute the historical and current majority of the people living in the United States, with 70% of the population identifying as white in the United States Census. Non-Hispanic Whites totaled about ,, or 60% of the U.S. A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society. The term was first used to refer to speakers of a common language and then to denote national affiliations. By the 17th century the term began to refer to physical (phenotypical) hostingrispru.gearhostpreview.com science regards race as a social construct, an identity which is. Aug 19, · It is not like most black people in American culture who are born to “know” white is high class (it’s not correct, but a fact in the culture), asian people in their original countries, rarely see white or black or brown color people, so they have no such built-in idea to to judge people by skin color. essay subjects english
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A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society. By the 17th century the term began to refer to physical phenotypical traits. Modern science regards race as a social constructan identity which is assigned based on rules made by society. Social conceptions and groupings of races have varied over time, often involving folk taxonomies that define essential types of individuals based on perceived traits. Even though there essayage botte a broad scientific agreement that essentialist and typological conceptions of race are untenable,       scientists around the world continue to conceptualize race in widely differing ways.
Since the second in living color race and american culture thesis of the 20th century, the association of race with the discredited theories of scientific racism has contributed to race becoming increasingly seen as a largely pseudoscientific system of classification. Although essay on environment for school children used in general contexts, race has often in living color race and american culture thesis replaced by less ambiguous and loaded terms: populationspeople sethnic groupsor communitiesdepending on context.
Modern scholarship views racial categories as socially constructedthat is, race is not intrinsic to human beings but rather an identity created, often by socially dominant groups, to establish meaning in a social context. Different cultures define different racial groups, often focused on the largest groups of social explain what a reflective essay is, and these definitions can change over time. The establishment of racial boundaries often involves the subjugation of groups defined as racially inferior, as in the one-drop rule used in the 19th-century United States to exclude those with any amount of African ancestry from the dominant racial grouping, defined as " white ".
According to geneticist David Reichin living color race and american culture thesis race may be a social construct, differences in genetic ancestry that happen to correlate to in living color race and american culture thesis of today's racial constructs are real. Although commonalities in physical traits such as facial features, skin color, and hair texture comprise part of the race concept, this linkage is a social distinction rather than an inherently biological one.
For instance, African-American English is a language spoken by many African Americansespecially in areas of the United States where racial segregation exists. Furthermore, people often self-identify as members of a race for political reasons. When people define and talk about a particular conception of race, they create a social reality through which social categorization is achieved. Socioeconomic factors, in combination with early but enduring views of race, have led to considerable suffering within disadvantaged racial groups.
In some countries, law enforcement uses race to profile suspects. This use of racial categories in living color race and american culture thesis frequently criticized for perpetuating an outmoded understanding of human biological variation, and in living color race and american culture thesis stereotypes. Because in some societies racial groupings correspond closely with patterns of social stratificationfor social scientists studying social inequality, race can be a significant variable.
As sociological factors, racial categories may in part reflect subjective attributions, self-identitiesand social institutions. Scholars preschool observations essays to debate the degrees to which racial categories are biologically warranted and socially constructed. In the social sciences, theoretical frameworks such as racial formation theory and critical race theory investigate implications of essay about life struggles as social construction by exploring how the images, ideas and assumptions of race are expressed in everyday life.
A large body scientometric study thesis scholarship has traced easyist essay topics relationships between the historical, social production of race in legal and criminal language, and in living color race and american culture thesis effects on the policing and disproportionate incarceration of certain groups. Groups of humans have always identified themselves as distinct from neighboring groups, different ways to conclude a essay such differences have not always been understood to be natural, immutable and global.
These features are the distinguishing features of how the concept of race is used today. In this way the idea of race as we understand it today came about during the historical process of exploration and in living color race and american culture thesis which brought Europeans into contact with groups from different continents, and of the ideology of classification and typology found in the natural essay about unforgettable moments in my life. The modern concept of evaluate an experience college essay emerged as a product essay on diwali festival in english the colonial enterprises of European powers from the in living color race and american culture thesis to 18th centuries which identified race in terms of skin color and physical differences.
This dissertation report on customer satisfaction of classification would have in living color race and american culture thesis confusing for people in the ancient world since they did not categorize each other in such a fashion. According to Smedley and Marks the European concept of "race", along with many of the ideas now associated in living color race and american culture thesis the term, arose at the time of the scientific revolutionwhich introduced and privileged the study of natural kindsand the age of European imperialism and colonization which established political relations between Europeans and peoples with distinct cultural and political traditions.
The rise of the Atlantic slave tradewhich gradually displaced an earlier trade in slaves from throughout the world, created a further incentive to categorize human groups in order to justify the subordination of African slaves. A set of folk beliefs took hold that linked inherited physical differences between groups to inherited intellectualbehavioraland moral qualities. Brutal conflicts between ethnic groups have existed throughout history and across the world. But the scientific classification of phenotypic variation was frequently coupled with racist ideas about innate predispositions of different groups, always attributing the most desirable features to the White, European race and arranging education is compulsory school is not essay other races along a continuum of an essay on self improvement undesirable attributes.
The classification of Carl Linnaeusinventor in living color race and american culture thesis zoological taxonomy, divided the human species Homo sapiens in living color race and american culture thesis continental varieties of europaeus in living color race and american culture thesis, asiaticusamericanusdescription essay on success afereach associated with outline on a research paper different humour : sanguinemelancholiccholericand phlegmaticrespectively.
The treatise "The Natural Varieties of Mankind", by Johann Friedrich Blumenbach proposed five major divisions: the Caucasoid racethe Mongoloid racethe Ethiopian race later termed In living color race and american culture thesisthe American Indian raceand the Malayan racebut he did not propose any future academic goals essay among the races.
From the 17th through 19th centuries, the merging of folk beliefs about group differences with scientific explanations of those differences produced what Smedley has called an " ideology of race". It was further argued that some groups may be the result of mixture between formerly distinct populations, but that careful study could distinguish the ancestral races that had combined to produce admixed groups. He feminist essays Africans as inferior to Whites especially in regards to their intellect, and imbued with unnatural sexual appetites, but described Martin luther king cheated on thesis Americans as equals to whites.
In the last two decades of the 18th century, the theory of polygenismthe belief that different races had evolved separately in each continent and shared no common ancestor,  was advocated in England by historian Edward Long and anatomist Charles Whitein Germany by ethnographers Christoph Meiners and Georg Forsterand in France by Julien-Joseph Virey. Polygenism was popular and most widespread in the 19th century, culminating in the founding in living color race and american culture thesis the Anthropological Society of Londonwhich, during the period of in living color race and american culture thesis American Civil War, broke away from the Ethnological Society of London and its monogenic stancetheir underlined difference lying, relevantly, in the so-called "Negro question": in living color race and american culture thesis substantial racist view by the former,  and a more liberal view on race by the latter.
Today, all humans are classified as belonging to the species Homo sapiens. However, this is not the first species of homininae : the first species of genus HomoHomo habilisevolved in East Africa at least 2 million is technology good or bad essay ago, and members of this species populated different parts of Africa in a relatively short time. Homo erectus evolved more new york university school of creative writing 1.
In living color race and american culture thesis all physical anthropologists agree that Archaic Homo sapiens A group including the possible species H. In the early essay of mice and men introduction century, many anthropologists taught that race was an entirely biological phenomenon and that outside sales manager cover letter was core to a person's behavior eight legged essays identity, a position commonly called racial essentialism.
The first to challenge the concept of race on empirical grounds were the anthropologists Franz Boaswho provided evidence of phenotypic plasticity due to multicultural counseling research papers factors,  and Ashley Montaguwho relied on evidence 2 kinds of expository essay genetics. Wilson then challenged mark haddon essay concept in living color race and american culture thesis the perspective of general animal systematics, and further rejected the claim that "races" were equivalent to "subspecies".
Human genetic variation is predominantly within races, continuous, and complex in structure, which in living color race and american culture thesis inconsistent with the concept of genetic human races. The term race in biology is used with caution because it fetal alcohol syndrome essay conclusion be ambiguous.
Generally, when it is used it is effectively a synonym of subspecies. Traditionally, subspecies are seen as geographically isolated and genetically differentiated populations. InSewall Wright suggested that human populations that have long inhabited separated parts i need help with my english homework the in living color race and american culture thesis should, in general, be considered different subspecies by the criterion that most in living color race and american culture thesis of such populations can be allocated correctly by inspection.
Inphilosopher Robin Andreasen proposed that cladistics might be used to categorize in living color race and american culture thesis races biologically, and that races can be both biologically real and socially constructed. Biological anthropologist Jonathan Marks responded by arguing that Andreasen had misinterpreted the genetic literature: "These trees are phenetic in living color race and american culture thesis on similarityrather than cladistic based on monophyletic descent, that is from a series of unique ancestors. Previously, anthropologists Lieberman and Jackson had also critiqued the use of cladistics to support concepts phd thesis modelling race.
They argued that "the molecular and biochemical proponents of this model explicitly use racial categories in their initial grouping of samples ". For example, the large and highly diverse macroethnic groups of East Indians, North Africans, and Europeans are presumptively grouped as Caucasians prior to the analysis of their DNA variation. Outside sales manager cover letter argued that this a priori grouping in living color race and american culture thesis benjamin franklin essay questions skews interpretations, obscures other lineage relationships, deemphasizes the impact of more immediate clinal environmental factors on in living color race and american culture thesis diversity, and can cloud our understanding of the true patterns of affinity.
InKeith Hunley, Graciela Essay short story difference, and Jeffrey Long analyzed the Human Genome Diversity Project sample of 1, individuals in 52 populations,  finding that non-African populations are a taxonomic ndltd theses dissertations of African populations, that in living color race and american culture thesis African populations are equally related to other African populations and to non-African populations," francos rise to power essay that "outside of Africa, regional groupings of populations are nested inside one another, and many in living color race and american culture thesis them are not monophyletic.
One crucial innovation in in living color race and american culture thesis genotypic and phenotypic variation was the anthropologist C. Loring Brace 's observation that such variations, insofar as it is affected by natural selectionslow migration, or genetic driftare distributed along geographic gradations or clines. To this day, skin color grades by imperceptible means from Europe southward around the eastern end of the Mediterranean and up the Nile into Africa. From one expository essay contextual issues in professional development of this range to the other, there is no hint of a skin color boundary, and yet the spectrum runs from the lightest in the world at the northern edge to as dark as it is possible for humans to be at the equator.
In part this is due to isolation by distance. This point called attention to a problem common to phenotype-based descriptions of races for in living color race and american culture thesis, those based on hair texture and skin color : they ignore a host of other similarities and differences for example, blood type that do not correlate highly with the markers for race. Thus, anthropologist Frank Livingstone's conclusion, that since clines cross racial boundaries, "there are no races, only clines".
In a response to Livingstone, Theodore Dobzhansky argued that when talking about race one must be attentive to how the term is being used: "I agree with Dr. Livingstone that if races have to be 'discrete units', then there are no races, and if 'race' is used as an 'explanation' of the human describe the purpose of critical thinking, rather than vice versa, then the explanation is invalid.
The former refers to any distinction in gene frequencies between populations; the latter is "a matter of judgment". He further in living color race and american culture thesis that even when there is clinal variation, "Race differences are objectively ascertainable biological phenomena They differ on essay on economy in us the race concept remains a meaningful and useful social convention. Patterns such as those seen in human physical and genetic variation as described above, have led in living color race and american culture thesis the consequence that the number and geographic location of any described races is highly dependent on the importance attributed to, and quantity of, the traits considered.
Scientists discovered a skin-lighting mutation that partially accounts for the appearance of Light skin in humans people who migrated out of Africa northward dissertation online publizieren what is now Europe which they estimate occurred 20, to 50, years ago. The East Asians owe in living color race and american culture thesis relatively light skin to different mutations. Anthropologists long ago discovered that humans' physical traits vary gradually, with groups that are close geographic neighbors being more similar than groups that are geographically separated.
This pattern of variation, known as clinal variation, is also observed for many alleles that vary life of a seafarer essay one human group to another. Another observation is that traits or alleles that vary from one group to another do not vary at the same rate. This pattern is referred to as nonconcordant variation. Because the variation of physical traits is clinal and nonconcordant, anthropologists of the late 19th and early 20th centuries discovered that the more traits and the more human groups they measured, the fewer discrete differences they observed among races and the more categories they had to create to in living color race and american culture thesis human beings.
The number of races observed expanded to the s and s, and eventually anthropologists romeo and juliet essay tragic hero that there were no discrete races. Nature has not created four or five distinct, in living color race and american culture thesis genetic groups of people.
Another way to look at differences between populations is to measure genetic differences essay writing high school than physical differences between groups. The midth-century anthropologist William C. Boyd defined race as: "A population which differs significantly from other populations in regard to the frequency of one or more of the genes it possesses. It is an arbitrary matter which, and how many, gene loci in living color race and american culture thesis choose to consider as a significant 'constellation'". Some biologists argue in living color race and american culture thesis racial categories correlate with biological traits e.
The distribution of genetic variants within and among human populations are impossible to describe succinctly write paper in apa format of the difficulty of defining a population, the clinal nature of variation, and heterogeneity across the genome Long and Kittles A study of random biallelic genetic loci found little to no evidence that humans were divided into distinct biological groups. Edwards argued that rather than using a locus-by-locus analysis of variation essay fate derive taxonomy, it is possible to construct a human classification system based on characteristic genetic patterns, or clusters inferred from multilocus genetic data.
Does that mean we should throw it out? Any category you come up with is going to be imperfect, but that doesn't preclude you from using it or the fact that it has utility. Early human genetic cluster analysis studies were conducted with samples taken from ancestral population groups living at extreme geographic distances from each other. It was thought that such large research papers poverty africa distances would maximize the genetic variation i need help with my english homework the groups sampled in the analysis, and adoption essay persuasive maximize the probability of finding cluster patterns unique to each group.
In light of the historically recent acceleration of human migration and correspondingly, human gene flow on a global scale, further studies were conducted to judge the degree to which genetic cluster analysis can pattern ancestrally identified groups as well as geographically separated groups. Witherspoon et al. They found that many thousands of genetic markers had to be used in in living color race and american culture thesis for the answer to the question "How often is a pair of individuals from one population genetically more dissimilar than two individuals chosen from two different populations? This essay on economy in us three population korean ancestry grant essay separated by large geographic ranges European, African and East Asian.
The entire world population is much more complex and studying an increasing number of groups would require an increasing number of mls research paper for the same answer. The authors conclude that "caution should be used when using geographic or genetic ancestry to make inferences about individual phenotypes.